Overview on LED lighting: technical characteristics, type lamps use, costs, pros and cons, cost-effectiveness

The traditional incandescent light bulbs are gradually disappearing, and they are claiming to arrogance energy-saving ones, thanks to the gradual banning of traditional light bulbs from the European Union, starting in September 2009. The new low-consumption lamps allow significant energy savings, are cheap and last much longer: are superior from all points of view. But they are not all the same: the vast majority are "compact fluorescent lamp (CFL)", but Ultimante are becoming increasingly popular, thanks to cost reduction, LED lamps. In this article will talk right in the latter, and the substantial advantages, but not only cheap, they have.

A Brief Overview

The history of the light bulb is long and successful. E 'was invented in the mid-nineteenth century, and spread rapidly. Has now reached a degree of maturity and perfection remarkable: in fact, the current models are virtually identical to those of the early 900.

Works well and is very economical, but it has two major disadvantages: a very low efficiency (around 10%) and a remarkable brittleness, due to the glass bulb.

The low efficiency was overcome by the introduction on the market a few years ago, the so-called "energy saving bulbs", which in reality, in most cases, they were like "compact fluorescent lamp (CFL)."

These lamps are very similar to the traditional "neon lights" produce light through a gas discharge that makes fluorescent (or "light emitter") the thin layer which is coated the inside of the glass.

They have much higher energy efficiency, but also two major flaws: they need some time to reach full brightness (commonly said that "you have to heat") and may not be used with a dimmer switch (dimmer).

They also have another defect of nature "aesthetic": the light produced, in some versions, is different from that of traditional incandescent light bulbs: it is much more "cold", or tending to bright white, and is often not appreciated by the people if not considered annoying and tiring. In fact, emit, although in very low quantities, infrared and ultraviolet rays, which are harmful to the skin and eyes, and the light produced is not continuous, but "shaky."

In addition, however, do not solve the problem of fragility, given that continue to have the glass envelope.

Finally, it can not be used with dimmer switches, so-called "dimmer" (such as those found in the classic "uprights" halogen, so to speak).

All of these defects, including fragility, are overcome by the brand new LED lamps. Let's see in detail what they are and how they work.


What is a LED?

It 'an acronym, which stands for "light emitting diode" or "light emitting diode".

Without going into technical details, is an electronic component that produces light thanks to a process of spontaneous emission when electric current is passed through it.

There exist different types, sizes, wattages, and colors. Those used for lighting naturally produce white light.

Since an LED normally produces only a modest amount of light, the lamps on the market are almost always formed by a discrete number of LED.


What are the advantages?

 life up to 50,000 hours (almost 6 years 24h/24 lit or lit almost 35 years 4h per day)

 high yield

 immediate ignition

 no heat production

 clean light because it lacks infrared and ultraviolet components

 insensitivity to moisture and vibration, high mechanical strength (if it falls to the ground does not break!)

 absence of mercury

 duration independent of the number of on / off switches

 normally used with a dimmer switch (dimmer)


And the disadvantages?

The cost. Or at least, so far it was. But the progress of technology makes them more and more affordable, with costs now comparable to traditional energy-saving lamps. For the rest, there are no other disadvantages.


How many types of LED lamps are commercially available?


Many, practically one for each type of traditional light bulb or lamp with low consumption which replaces.

There are the classic spherical shapes, forms "in oil", spotlights, and much more: just browse the catalogs of manufacturers to find hundreds.

They have standard attacks E27 (the classic screw) or E14 (the classic screw "mignon", a typical example. Bedside lamps). Those that replace the spotlights have the standard attack of the latter.


What should I do to install them?

Buy them, unscrew the existing light bulbs, and screw the new LED. Are perfectly compatible in all respects with both the traditional incandescent lamps, both with halogen, both with energy saving lamps.


How agree?

Very, although at first glance, given the cost, it might seem the opposite.

A classic incandescent lamp 60w, consumes just 60W. An LED lamp that emits the same light consumes only 5W, or more than 90% less.

In addition, an LED lasts at least 20 times longer than a traditional bulb: when faced with the initial expense, will continue to shed light for many years.

Even from a qualitative point of view, the light produced is very similar to the natural one, has no false color, emits no harmful ultraviolet or infrared rays, no flickering, no flickering, not tired the view.


If you can deal with the initial fee (maybe a bit 'at a time, taking advantage of those who "blows"), replaced all the bulbs with LEDs: the portfolio, the eyes and the environment thank you.



Translated via software



Italian version of ReteIngegneri.it

Seguici su Facebook